List of Linux Commands

Written by: Linuxopsys   |   Last updated: November 21, 2023

Linux commands are the building blocks of mastering this robust OS. This allows you to manipulate files, manage processes, configure networks, and perform a multitude of tasks with precision and efficiency.

Whether you're an experienced sysadmin fine-tuning your server's performance or a curious enthusiast exploring the inner workings of Linux, this guide is your indispensable companion.

The List of Linux Commands

lsList files and directories in the current directoryNavigation
cdChange the current directoryNavigation
mkdirCreate a new directoryNavigation
cpCopy files or directoriesNavigation
mvMove or rename files or directoriesNavigation
pwdPrint the current working directoryNavigation
catDisplay the contents of a fileFiles
viOpen a text editor (Vim)Files
nanoOpen a text editor (Nano)Files
touchCreate an empty fileFiles
lessView text files page by pageFiles
tailDisplay the end of a fileFiles
moreView text files page by pageFiles
chmodChange file permissionsFiles
chownChange file ownershipFiles
diffCompare two filesFiles
diff3Compare three filesFiles
sdiffMerge and compare two files interactivelyFiles
ddConvert and copy filesFiles
lnCreate symbolic or hard linksFiles
rmRemove files or directoriesFiles
zipCompress files into a zip archiveFiles
wcCount words, lines, or characters in a fileFiles
shredSecurely delete filesFiles
statDisplay file or file system statusFiles
base64Encode or decode data in base64 formatFiles
hexdumpDisplay file content in hexadecimal formatFiles
odDisplay file content in octal or other formatsFiles
xxdCreate or view hex dumpsFiles
uptimeShow system uptimeSystem Management
unameDisplay system informationSystem Management
shutdownShut down the systemSystem Management
rebootReboot the systemSystem Management
duDisplay disk usage of directories and filesSystem Management
dfDisplay disk space usageSystem Management
lsblkList block devices and their attributesSystem Management
blkidDisplay block device attributesSystem Management
dateDisplay or set the system date and timeSystem Management
hostnameDisplay or set the system hostnameSystem Management
fdiskPartition table manipulator for disksSystem Management
gdiskPartitioning tool for GPT disksSystem Management
mountMount file systemsSystem Management
vmstatReport virtual memory statisticsSystem Management
echoPrint a message to the terminalSystem Management
historyDisplay command historySystem Management
semanageSELinux policy managementSystem Management
ldapsearchSearch LDAP directorySystem Management
passwdChange user passwordUser Management
sudoExecute a command as another user with privilegesUser Management
usermodModify user account settingsUser Management
useraddCreate a new userUser Management
userdelDelete a userUser Management
groupaddCreate a new groupUser Management
groupmodModify a groupUser Management
wShow who is logged on and what they are doingUser Management
sshSecure Shell for remote accessUser Management
topDisplay and manage system processesManage Processes
psDisplay information about running processesManage Processes
bgResume a stopped background processManage Processes
fgBring a background process to the foregroundManage Processes
killTerminate processes by process IDManage Processes
nice, reniceAdjust process priorityManage Processes
fuserIdentify processes using a file or directoryManage Processes
ipShow/manipulate routing, devices, and policy routingNetworking
pingSend ICMP echo requests to a hostNetworking
curlTransfer data with URLsNetworking
wgetDownload files from the internetNetworking
scpSecurely copy files between hostsNetworking
rsyncSync files and directories across systemsNetworking
ssSocket statisticsNetworking
tcpdumpNetwork packet analyzerNetworking
findSearch for files and directoriesSearch
grepSearch for patterns in textSearch
locateSearch for files and directories quicklySearch
stringsPrint the strings of printable characters in filesSearch
trTranslate or delete charactersFilter
cutRemove sections from lines of filesFilter
uniqReport or omit repeated linesFilter
awkText processing toolFilter
sedStream editor for textFilter
teeRedirect output to multiple files/streamsFilter
sortSort lines of text filesFilter
xargsExecute commands from standard inputFilter


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